Understanding Latin-based Abbreviations

Abbreviations are short forms of lengthy expressions. Abbreviations are in use in almost every discipline and area of life from commonly used abbreviations. Looking at Latin, the root of the English language, is a good way to decipher abbreviations. The most popular abbreviations that we use in our day to day life are derived from this ancient language. [1] [2]

AD: Anno Domini, or "The Year of Our Lord."
AM: Ante meridian
BC: before Christ
e.g.: exampli gratia, for example [3]
et al.: et alii
etc.: et cetera
f. (singular): folio
ff. (plural): foliis
i.e.: id est, That is; in other words; that is to say. often confused with e.g.: i.e. is used to explain, clarify or rephrase a statement; e.g. is used to list examples. [4]
ibid.: ibidem
N.B.: nota bene
op. cit.: opere citato
per cent.: per centum
Ph.D.: Philosophiæ Doctor
PM: Post meridian
P.S.: post scriptum, literary afterthought (at the end of any text) [5]
Re: in re, with regard to [6]
s.o.s.: si opus sit
Sic.: sic erat scriptum
stat.: statim, at once [7]
viz: videlicet, namely [8]
v.i.: vide infra, see below [9]
v.s.: vide supra, see above [10]
vs.: versus


  1. List of Latin Abbreviations
  2. List of Latin phrases
  3. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/e.g.
  4. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/i.e.
  5. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/post_scriptum
  6. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/in_re
  7. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/statim
  8. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/videlicet
  9. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/vide_infra
  10. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/vide_supra